The festivities and activities acknowledging the 100th day vary from school to school. Depending on when the school year began and whether or not there were days off for teacher workshops or inclement weather, most schools celebrate the 100th day of school in late January or early February.
The 100th day of school is literally the 100th day of the school year. More importantly, it is a great way for elementary school teachers to celebrate the various mathematical concepts using the number 100. Newport Elementary Kindergarten students dressed up like 100 year olds and celebrated. Interestingly, as Newport Elementary celebrates the 100th day of school, 2018 is the 100th anniversary of the Education Act of 1918.
The Education Act of 1918 made local education authorities responsible for extended education and training, also the power to enforce school attendance. As a result of the reforms introduced under the 1918 Act, employing children under the age of 12 became illegal. Within the Education act were seven principles called Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education. These principles are still very much part of today’s school systems.
The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education was issued in 1918 by the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education to form objectives for secondary education. It was decided that segmented subjects and their subject matter were a way to achieve the decided goals, but that they were not the one and only way. A new focus that took into account individual differences, goals, attitudes, and abilities was adopted. Work on the Cardinal Principles started in 1915 and finished in 1918. The seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education include Health, Command of Fundamental Processes, Worthy Home Membership, Vocation, Civic Education, Worthy Use of Leisure, and Ethical Character.
The principle of Health focused on the encouragement of good health habits, health instruction, and providing physical activities. Also it stated that teachers should be examples for good health and schools should furnish good equipment and safe buildings.
Second, the Fundamental Processes principle included writing, reading, oral and written expression, and math. It was decided that these basics should be applied to newer material instead of using the older ways of doing things. This is still visible in today’s education through the trends toward more technology and various ways of completing mathematical problems, etc.
Third, the principle of Worthy Home Membership called for the development of qualities that make the individual a worthy member of a family, both contributing to and deriving benefit from that membership. The principle was to be taught through literature, music, social studies, and art. Co-ed schools should show good relationships between males and females.
The objective of the Vocational principle was for the student to get to know him or herself and a variety of careers so that the student can choose the most suitable career. Ideally, the people successful in a vocation should be the ones to teach the students in either the school or workplace.
The goal of civic education was to develop an awareness and concern for community. A student should gain knowledge of social organizations and a commitment to civic morality. Diversity and cooperation should be paramount. Democratic organization of the school and classroom, as well as group problem solving, are the methods that this principle should be taught through.
Sixth, the Worthy Use of Leisure principle was for education to give students the skills to enrich the body, mind, spirit and personality during their leisure. The school should also provide appropriate recreation. This principle should be taught in all subjects but primarily in music, art, literature, drama, social issues, and science.
The last principle, Ethical Character, involved instilling in the student the notion of personal responsibility and initiative. Appropriate teaching methods and school organization are the primary examples that should be used.
All of the seven principles were interrelated. In order for these principles to be successful, the student be willing to follow them and an ethical character that will allow learning to take place. After 100 years, the educational principles have not wavered much since the forming of the principles.